Equal Work for Equal Pay?

It is commonly claimed that women on average earn less than men. For example, The Expert Witness Newsletter Spring 2002 says that, “In 1967, women’s earnings were approximately 58 percent of men’s earnings. By 1997, women’s earnings were approximately 73 percent of men’s earnings.”

Feminists commonly blame these raw statistics on “male control” and “oppression of females”, without looking at legitimate economic reasons for the gap – especially any differences in female behavior that might help explain the gap.

Economists typically note that much of the remaining wage gap between the groups is explained by the career choices of women who as a group disproportionately take time off for child rearing, putting them behind men of the same age in their career.

Turns out there may be another explanation. Women may be getting lower pay because the jobs they are doing aren’t equal work (on average):

The overwhelming majority of dangerous jobs are held by men, who accounted for 93 percent of all workplace fatalities last year while comprising 54 percent of the overall workforce.

What are these dangerous “male dominated” jobs? Things like commercial fishing, truck driving, farming, traveling sales, ranching. More danger should, everything else equal, mean higher pay than safer jobs with similar skill levels. (Of course, some men seek dangerous jobs precisely because of the challenge and that probably helps lower the minimum wage rate where men will accept those positions, compared to women.)

The irony is that to the extent the wage gap is driven by men taking more dangerous jobs that pay more, the reason men are in those jobs may be that they set a lower price on their own lives than women. Women, as a group, choose the lower paying jobs since the more dangerous jobs don’t pay enough for them to accept the risk.

wage gap,dangerous jobs

America’s most dangerous jobs

We give thanks with the humility of free men

Thanksgiving Day, 2006
A Proclamation by the President of the United States of America

As Americans gather with family and friends to celebrate Thanksgiving Day, we give thanks for the many ways that our Nation and our people have been blessed.

The Thanksgiving tradition dates back to the earliest days of our society, celebrated in decisive moments in our history and in quiet times around family tables. Nearly four centuries have passed since early settlers gave thanks for their safe arrival and pilgrims enjoyed a harvest feast to thank God for allowing them to survive a harsh winter in the New World. General George Washington observed Thanksgiving during the Revolutionary War, and in his first proclamation after becoming President, he declared November 26, 1789, a national day of “thanksgiving and prayer.” During the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln revived the tradition of proclaiming a day of thanksgiving, reminding a divided Nation of its founding ideals.

At this time of great promise for America, we are grateful for the freedoms guaranteed by our Constitution and defended by our Armed Forces throughout the generations. Today, many of these courageous men and women are securing our peace in places far from home, and we pay tribute to them and to their families for their service, sacrifice, and strength. We also honor the families of the fallen and lift them up in our prayers.

Our citizens are privileged to live in the world’s freest country, where the hope of the American dream is within the reach of every person. Americans share a desire to answer the universal call to serve something greater than ourselves, and we see this spirit every day in the millions of volunteers throughout our country who bring hope and healing to those in need. On this Thanksgiving Day, and throughout the year, let us show our gratitude for the blessings of freedom, family, and faith, and may God continue to bless America.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim Thursday, November 23, 2006, as a National Day of Thanksgiving. I encourage all Americans to gather together in their homes and places of worship with family, friends, and loved ones to reinforce the ties that bind us and give thanks for the freedoms and many blessings we enjoy.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixteenth day of November, in the year of our Lord two thousand six, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-first.


James Madison

The senate and House of Representatives of the United States have by a joint resolution signified their desire that a day may be recommended to be observed by the people of the United States with religious solemnity as a day of thanksgiving and of devout acknowledgments to Almighty God for His great goodness manifested in restoring to them the blessing of peace.

No people ought to feel greater obligations to celebrate the goodness of the Great Disposer of Events of the Destiny of Nations than the people of the United States. His kind providence originally conducted them to one of the best portions of the dwelling place allotted for the great family of the human race. He protected and cherished them under all the difficulties and trials to which they were exposed in their early days. Under His fostering care their habits, their sentiments, and their pursuits prepared them for a transition in due time to a state of independence and self-government. In the arduous struggle by which it was attained they were distinguished by multiplied tokens of His benign interposition. During the interval which succeeded He reared them into the strength and endowed them with the resources which have enabled them to assert their national rights, and to enhance their national character in another arduous conflict, which is now so happily terminated by a peace and reconciliation with those who have been our enemies. And to the same Divine Author of Every Good and Perfect Gift we are indebted for all those privileges and advantages, religious as well as civil, which are so richly enjoyed in this favored land.
It is for blessings such as these, and more especially for the restoration of the blessing of peace, that I now recommend that the second Thursday in April next be set apart as a day on which the people of every religious denomination may in their solemn assembles unite their hearts and their voices in a freewill offering to their Heavenly Benefactor of their homage of thanksgiving and of their songs of praise.
Given at the city of Washington on the 4th day of March, A.D. 1815, and of the Independence of the United States the thirty-ninth.

In this year of our victory, absolute and final, over German fascism and Japanese militarism; in this time of peace so long awaited, which we are determined with all the United Nations to make permanent; on this day of our abundance, strength, and achievement; let us give thanks to Almighty Providence for these exceeding blessings.
We have won them with the courage and the blood of our soldiers, sailors, and airmen. We have won them by the sweat and ingenuity of our workers, farmers, engineers, and industrialists. We have won them with the devotion of our women and children. We have bought them with the treasure of our rich land. But above all we have won them because we cherish freedom beyond riches and even more than life itself.
We give thanks with the humility of free men, each knowing it was the might of no one arm but of all together by which we were saved. Liberty knows no race, creed, or class in our country or in the world. In unity we found our first weapon, for without it, both here and abroad, we were doomed. None have known this better than our very gallant dead, none better than their comrade, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Our thanksgiving has the humility of our deep mourning for them, our vast gratitude to them.
Triumph over the enemy has not dispelled every difficulty. Many vital and far-reaching decisions await us as we strive for a just and enduring peace. We will not fail if we preserve, in our own land and throughout the world, that same devotion to the essential freedoms and rights of mankind which sustained us throughout the war and brought us final victory.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, in consonance with the joint resolution of Congress approved December 26, 1941, do hereby proclaim Thursday November 22, 1945, as a day of national thanksgiving. May we on that day, in our homes and in our places of worship, individually and as groups, express our humble thanks to Almighty God for the abundance of our blessings and may we on that occasion rededicate ourselves to those high principles of citizenship for which so many splendid Americans have recently given all.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed.
DONE at the City of Washington 12th day of November in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred forty-five and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and seventieth.

Text of all Thanksgiving Proclamations by US Presidents


Free to Choose – Free Online

MP3.com and Linspire founder Michael Robertson recounts his experience meeting his hero Milton Friedman a few years ago. He wanted to ask Friedman one important question, so he asked him “How do you make the world a better place?” Friedman’s answer:

If you want to improve the world you have to create more capital. While creating non-profits makes people feel better, the only way to fundamentally improve living conditions is to create more business.

Robertson and his partner Bob Chitester of IdeaChannel are now broadcasting the entire Free To Choose series online for free.”

In honor of Milton Friedman, we are streaming the ground-breaking Free to Choose series as it originally aired in 1980 as well as an updated 1990 version. Also watch for a biography, “The Power of Choice” which will air Monday, January 29 on PBS. This date has also been declared as Milton Friedman Day.

Free to Choose,Milton Friedman

Democrat Draft

All those folks who bought into the Kos “libertarian Democrat” con got a rude awakening Sunday with the news that Charlie Rangel intends to introduce, and the Democrat Congress is likely to pass, a bill creating a military draft in the United States for the first time in over 30 years.

The military draft in the Vietnam era was the impetus for the creation of the libertarian movement, as distinct from the conservative movement generally, and for the eventual creation of the Libertarian Party. Republican President Richard Nixon oversaw the end of the draft and now Democrats want to bring it back.

It’s hard to imagine a more direct attack on the idea that people have inalienable rights to their own life and liberty than the draft. The draft restricts the conscripts liberty utterly for the term of enlistment. It claims his very life for use as cannon fodder.

The common false claim is that Republicans can only be counted on to support economic liberty, while in fact they are often strong supporters of civil liberties. The equally false claim, given the lie by this proposal, is that Democrats, can at least be counted on to support liberty in personal matters.

Once again, Democrats are proving that the moral equivalence of the two parties, with one supporting liberty in one sphere and the other supporting it in the other, is a myth. Once again, they’re proving that Democrats aren’t “liberal”, that they are, in fact, pure authoritarian collectivists.

Rangel Says He Will Revive Legislation to Impose Military Draft